What motivates your employees to perform at their best every day? Many people think the main motivator is just money. And while it’s true - we do all work for money - there’s so much more to employee motivation than compensation.
Knowing what truly motivates your employees can seem like a bit of a mystery. What really makes a difference, and what is just nice to have? When you know what works, you can make improvements and see a difference in employee motivation levels and your workforce's strength.
Fortunately, employee motivation theories abound. We’ve done the research for you and picked out the five theories that actually work - so you get real results motivating everyone at your company to go above and beyond every day.
What is Employee Motivation?
Your motivated employees are the ones who roll out of bed almost every morning feeling excited to go to work and take on new challenges. They look forward to learning new skills, stretching their capabilities, and taking on new responsibilities. In short, they’re awesome.
And they’re not just full of energy and enthusiasm - they’re also very beneficial for your business. They’re more productive, leave your company less often, and bring positive energy to the whole team. That’s why so many businesses have spent time trying to figure out the best ways to motivate employees. And that’s why we’ve narrowed down the following best motivational theories - they really work!
5 Best Motivational Theories for Employees
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory of Motivation
Psychologist Abraham Maslow came up with this theory in his famous 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation. The basis of his theory is that human beings need to have their most basic needs met before they can get the motivation to achieve those higher goals. His hierarchy has five levels:
- Physiological – these basic needs, like food, water, sleep, and shelter, have to be met in order for a person to survive.
- Safety – these needs help people feel safe and include health, freedom, and personal and financial security.
- Social – these needs are for connections like love, friendships, relationships and family.
- Esteem – these needs are to feel good about yourself, confident, appreciated, and recognized.
- Self-actualization – the top of the pyramid is the need to become your very best self.
This theory makes sense - if you’re worried about where your next meal is coming from and how you’ll afford it, you’re not going to be able to do a lot of top-notch thinking about strategic initiatives.
What does this mean for employee motivation? Supporting the needs of your employees outside of work is vital. They will not achieve everything they’d like to at work if they’re uncertain about their next paycheck or taken up with basic daily tasks. This is why many companies offer perks like on-site amenities, flexible work schedules, wellness discounts, and more.
Employees are not just workers - they’re human beings with complex needs, and helping them fulfill more of those needs can allow them to shine when they’re at work and thrive outside of it too.
Hertzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s, the Two-Factor Theory posits that two main factors significantly influence employee satisfaction, engagement, and motivation.
Motivator factors are, quite simply, factors that provide employees with positive motivation to do their best at work every day. These positive factors include feeling recognized and appreciated, enjoying their role, and seeing a clear career progression path.
Hygiene factors aren't about the easy availability of soap in the employee restrooms - these are the factors that can make employees feel dissatisfied and demotivated when they’re not present. These negative factors can include salaries, benefits, relationships with coworkers and managers, and company policies.
Both of these factors contribute significantly to employee motivation, but they operate independently of each other. You need to work on both factors to really improve employee motivation.
Preventing low motivation means taking care of those hygiene factors, so employees feel well-paid and happy with the people they work with. And raising motivation means promoting those motivator factors like making recognition frequently and meaningful (just like you can do with Empuls).
Self-Determination Theory of Motivation
External factors are certainly important for employee motivation - but it can also be highly helpful and effective to provide the framework for increasing internal motivation as well. That’s where the Self-Determination Theory comes in. This theory posits that satisfying the three basic psychological needs of employees helps encourage intrinsic motivation and high-quality performance.
These three basic internal needs are:
- Relatedness, or the feeling of being cared for and having a strong sense of belonging. This means making people feel heard, valued, and appreciated.
- Competence, or feeling effective and experiencing growth. Trusting employees to do their jobs well while holding them accountable for achievable goals is a key factor here.
- Autonomy, or empowering employees to feel like they’re in charge of their own actions, can make their own choices. Avoiding micro-managing and encouraging employees to take initiatives on their own help fill these needs.
This employee motivation theory is all about creating a workplace environment that helps employees be their best selves. The human need to grow, feel valued, and have confidence in skills is at the heart of this SHRM-approved theory, especially in difficult external times.
Expectancy Theory of Motivation
People choose how they’ll behave due to the outcome they expect from that behavior - that’s the logic behind the Expectancy Theory. That means, in short, we decide what we’re going to do based on the outcome we expect. It makes a lot of sense, right? Humans are generally pretty rational creatures, and Expectancy Theory agrees with that notion.
Expectancy Theory has three parts:
- Expectancy, which is the belief that your effort will lead to your desired end. This factor is different for everyone, as it depends on your own self-confidence, past experiences, and how hard you think your goal will be to get to.
- Instrumentality, which is your belief you’ll actually get a reward for meeting expectations.
- Valence, which is how much you value the expected reward.
What does this all really mean? People are motivated to perform well if they believe there’s a reasonable chance they’ll get a reward that they value.
So if you’re trying to increase employee performance by handing out little ceramic sculptures of frogs as a reward for good work, employees might think they have a good chance of getting that reward - but it’s not really valuable.
On the other hand, if merit raises are highly valued but are rare and stingy at your company, employees will probably not be highly motivated since they don’t see a high likelihood of a decent raise coming soon.
Instead, try to set goals for your employees to achieve and then provide rewards for those goals they actually want. Sound simple? Too many employers don’t do at least one of these steps - and some skip both.
Three-Dimensional Theory of Attribution
Human beings are always looking for meaning in everything that happens to us. This is the basis behind the Three-Dimensional Theory of Attribution, which was developed by Bernard Weiner. It says that people try to determine why we do what we do, and the reasons we try to find in our behavior influence how we act in the future.
For example, an employee who performs poorly in a big presentation might attribute this failure to bad luck, the technology in the room failing, or their own lack of confidence or competence.
This theory boils down to three main characteristics we tend to attribute behaviors to.
- Do we see the problem as temporary, like a bad night’s sleep due to construction noise outside our home? Or is it an ongoing and stable issue, like our own unworthiness?
- Do we believe the problem was caused by external events, like the presentation computer crashing? Or do we locate the problem internally to a lack of our own intelligence?
- Were the factors for presenting well within our control or outside of it? Was it a lack of preparation we could have controlled or an internet outage that was outside our control?
When people feel they lack innate strengths and skills, they can tell defeatist stories about themselves that cause them to give up hope for improvement. And that’s a very demotivating feeling.
On the other hand, when employees feel they can control more factors that caused problems and know how to fix them, they’re more likely to make improvements and feel motivated to do better.
Making Employees More Motivated
Looking for all-in-one solutions to help your employees feel more valued, appreciated, and recognized for their good work? You’ve probably noticed that’s a common theme in many of these employee motivation theories. And now you’re looking for a solution that integrates seamlessly with the systems your team already uses every day.